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INFLUENCE OP CERTAIN ELEMENTS ON STEEL.
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In the same way the line of next lower carbon shows that, in steels of 0.33 per cent, of carbon, the strengthening effect is about 260 Ib, per sq. in. The next three lines may be considered as a unit indicating that, for steels of 0.155 per cent, of carbon, the strengthening effect is about 125 Ib. per sq. in. Plotting these data it was found that the strengthening effect of each 0.01 per cent, of manganese above a content of 0.4 per cent, is 80 Ib. per sq. in. for a steel of 0,1 per cent, of carbon, but that for each rise of 0.01 per
TABLE XVII-Q. Classification of Acid Heats According to Content of Manganese.
Nom~-In the last column both carbon and phosphorus are valued at 1,000 pounds
for 0,01 per cent.
Limits of carbon ; per cent.	Limits of manKfvnoHe ; per cent.	$ 8 A s 1 to 0 12 20 11 ___ 19 55 41 14 IF 23 19 IT" 122 19 IT 144 17	Chemical composition ; per cent.				Ultimate strength; pounds per sq.. in.	
			Carbon.	Phosphorus.	1 bo	Sulphur.	Actual records.	After deducting for carbon and phosphorus.
0,075 to 0.184	0.80 to 0.88 0.80 to 0,39 0.40 to 0,44 0.45 to 0.49		0.1052 0.1117 0.1110 0.1108	OOOO	0.830 0.377 0,416 0,462	0.0560 0.0576 0.0589 0.0636	57558 57047 58173 59185	41558 40877 41483 41775
0,125 to 0.174	0.80 to 0.85 0.86 to 0.89 0.40 to 0.44 0.45 to 0.49 0.50 to 0,59		0.1330 0.1854 0.1450 0.1477 0.1608	0.0585 0.0588 0.0565) 0.0504 0.0601	0.880 0.881 0.417 0.470 0,503	0,0550 0.0564 0.0579 0.0595	60200 59189 60560 61483 64268	41050 40209 40280 41073 42163
								
0.176 to 0.284	0.40 to 0.44 0.45 to 0,49 0.50 to 0.59 0.40 to 0.49 0,60 to 0.59 0,60 to 0.09		0.8004 0.8016 0,1960	0.0562 0.0587 0.0579	0.422 0.408 0.527	0.0504 0.0567	60287 67020 67035	40577 40990 41645
								
0.285 to 0.374			0.8127 0.8305 0.3413	0,0476 0,0482 0,0476	0,461 0.541 0.618		77471 81257 84468	41441 48387 45678
								
								
								
Over Q.874	0.40 to 0,49 0,50 to 0.59 0.60 to 0.69		0.4495 0,4887 0.44.61	0,0359 0.0895 0.0387	0.465 0.537 0.618		90680 92365 96218	42140 44545 47788
								
								
								
cent, of carbon the strengthening effect is increased 8 pounds. Thus an increase in manganese from 0.4 to 0.41 per cent, in steel of 0.1 per cent, of carbon raises the strength 80 Ib., but an increase in manganese from 0.4 to 0.41 per cent, in steel of 0.11 per cent, of carbon raises the strength 88 pounds. A continuation of the line thus plotted gave zero-effect for zero carbon. With basic steel it